Menkheperre Tuthmosis III ascended to the Egyptian throne as Pharaoh in 1504 B.C. Tuthmosis III was short, standing only just over 168 cm (five feet) tall, as his mummy tells us (mummy). Legend presents Tuthmosis as born of peasant race, the son of a slave-woman in the Pharaoh's harem. Thutmosis is also called the Napoleon of ancient Egypt because of his military conquests.
For twenty years, his stepmother/aunt, Queen Pharaoh Makare Hatshepsut, served as his co-regent. He inherited a thousand year old civilization of such stability which would continue for many centuries more. No other civilization has even come close to the grandeur and stability as has the Egyptian civilization.
While his predecessor, the only female pharaoh in history, Hatshepsut, made a formidable name in history by building temples and amassing great wealth, Tuthmosis made his name by extending the geographical boundaries of his beloved land.
In 1500 B.C. Thutmosis III documents a rebellion of Canaanite Kings who attempt to overthrow Egyptian rule. The confederation of rebels is led by the city state of Megiddo (Armageddon). Pharaoh Thutmosis besieges Megiddo for seven months, then wins the decisive battle of Qinnah Brook (wasdi Lajjun). According to the report of Thutmosis III, the Canaanites are forced to yield 924 chariots and 207,300 kur of wheat to the Egyptians. This is the earliest reported battle in history.
Tuthmosis also began immediately to crush a revolt in the northeastern section of his empire, Kadesh, a city-state in Syria, led by the King Saustatar of Mitanni. Tuthmosis army consisted of the Nubian Militia, the greatest tactical innovation, followed by the infantry, which consisted mainly of spearmen.
King Tuthmosis III
This relief comes from the Temple of King Tuthmosis at Deir el Bahari. It is now being housed at the Luxor Museum, Egypt.
". . . the main sources of the 18th dynasty were Nubian and Libyan, depicted black and yellow, but not red of the Egyptians. This black strain seems to have come through the Tao I and II ancestry".---- W.M. Flinders Petrie, The Making of Egypt, 1939, p. 155
Painted limestone stela from reign of King Tuthmosis III
(London: British Museum)
The real military confrontation between Kerma and Egypt took place under King Tuthmosis I in 1488 B.C. and resulted in the end of the royal line of Kerma and probably the destruction of its capital so that Egypt power could be extended to the Fourth Cataract. Nevertheless, local chiefs continued to resist for a half century until Thutmosis III's final pacification of Nubia in the mid-15th century. Thutmosis III built a provincial capital just north of the Fourth Cataract, called Napata, to administer all of Nubia.
Commander Dedu was a Nubian and served under Tuthmosis III as the chief of the famed Medjay Militia in the New Kingdom era. These troops were Nubian warriors who distinguished themselves in the Egyptian battle against the Asiatic invaders during the Second Intermediate Period and the early parts of the new Kingdom. They helped Kamose and Ahmose in their fight against the Hyksos in the Delta. During the peace that followed the Medjay became the state police. They also served as the main occupational forces for various garrisons and fortresses.
Dedu commanded the police units in strategic locations and maintained peace. He was Superintendent of the Western Deserts and was a royal envoy to the tribes living there. Dedu was buried at Thebes on the western shore.
Egyptologist W.M. Flinders Petrie, famously known as "The Father of Pre-history". Petrie, excavations at Nagada and Ballas in Upper Egypt nearly 100 years ago unearth nearly 2200 ancient graves. He wrote over a thousand books, articles and reviews reporting on his excavations and his finds.
James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part One
Who's Who in Ancient Egypt (Who's Who), Michael Rice, 1999
Click to enlarge another view of the Medjay Troops
Limestone block from a temple wall at Deir El Bahari (western Thebes).
Thutmose III; wearing the Atef crown.
Statue of Amenhotep
Deputy overseer of seal-bearers Amenhotep, reign of Thutmosis III.
Thebes, Tomb 99
Excavations of Nigel Strudwick, 1993
Book: Hidden Treasurer of Ancient Egypt
Detail of a wall painting from the tomb of a high Egyptian official, showing an Egyptian scribe recording deliveries of Nubian products shortly after Egypt's conquest of Nubia. Visible are ebony logs, ivory tusks, baskets of ostrich eggs and gold ingots, ostrich feathers, leopard skins, resins, tamarind nuts, aromatic herbs - even a green monkey. Reign of King Thutmose III .