Egyptologist Petrie wrote: "His [Seqenenra] wife Aahhotep was one of the great queens of Egyptian history, important as the historic link of the dynasties, and revered along with her still more celebrated and honored daughter Nefertari. We have already noticed how her son Aahmes (so described on Edfu stele), was of the ordinary Egyptian complexion, while her daughter Nefertari, was black. As Seqenenra was Berber, Nefertari might be three-quarters black; while Aahmes, if son of an Egyptian, thus accounting for the difference. The age of Aahmes at his accession, after the insignificant reigns of his brothers, shows that he was the son of a first husband, implying that Aahhotep first married an Egyptian, and secondly, Seqenenra. The reign of Kames before Aahmes shows that he was the elder brother. And the presence of Sekhentnebra between Aahmes and Kames (tomb of Khabekht) shows that he was another brother, who probably reigned briefly between them." (Petrie, A History of Egypt, Part Two, 1896, p. 9. "The Father of Egyptian Pre-history", Petrie, excavations at Nagada and Ballas in Upper Egypt nearly 100 years ago unearth nearly 2200 ancient graves. He wrote over a thousand books, articles and reviews reporting on his excavations and his finds.)

X-raying the Pharaohs:

The authors of X-raying the Pharaohs, (1973) are James E. Harris director of the expedition to x-ray the pharaohs, professor of dentistry and chairman of the Department of Orthodontics at the University of Michigan; and Kent R. Weeks, an American Egyptologist and member of the expedition, is associate professor and chairman of the Department of Anthropology at The American University in Cairo wrote:

Seqenenra Tao: "His entire lower facial complex, in fact, is so different from other pharaohs that he could be fitted more easily into the series of Nubian and Old Kingdom Giza skulls than into that of later Egyptian kings. Various scholars in the past have proposed a Nubian--that is, non-Egyptian--origin for Seqenenra and his family, and his facial features suggest this might indeed be true. If it is, the history of the family that reputedly drove the Hyksos from Egypt, and the history of the Seventeenth Dynasty, stand in need of considerable re-examination".

Written in the book X-raying the Pharaohs states that Donald Redford, a modern Canadian Egyptologist. . . . "believes Hatshepsut's attainment of the throne represents the final attempt in the Eighteenth Dynasty to establish a strong matrairchate in Egypt. He cites the unusual importance of earlier queens in this period --Tetisheri, Ahhotep I, Ahmose-Nefertari--as evidence of such a tendency, and here suggest that the influences for such a matriarchally determined order of succession might have come from Nubia. The possibility that the rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty were themselves at least part Nubian".
?   =  Ahhotep I                    

The Identification of the Eighteenth Dynasty Royal Mummies; A Biological Perspective, lnternafional Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 1: pp. 235-239, (1991)

Secrets of the Ancient World Revealed Through DNA, A lecture presented to the ESS by Dr. Scott Woodward, Professor of Microbiology, BrighamYoung University, April 20, 2001, Summarized by Judy Greenfield, Journal of The Egyptian Study Society, volume 12 no. 1, Summer 2001, pp. 1-4.

W. M. Flinders Petrie, A History of Egypt – Part Two, 1896, p. 9

James E. Harris, Kent R. Weeks, X-raying the Pharaohs, 1973, p. 135

Donald B. Redford, A History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967), p. 66
Ahmos I
(Aahmes I)
     Seqenenra Tao II = Ahhotep I
Ahmose-Merytamun  =
Amenhotep I   =  Seneseneb (non-royal)
Ahmose      =
Hatshepsut      =    Tuthmosis II    = Asert (Isis)
Tuthmosis I =
Tuthmosis III
Amenhotep II = Tiaa
Tuthmosis IVMutemwiya
Amenhotep III   = Tiye      Yuya = Thuya
  Kiya  =  Akhenaten   =  Nefertiti
Tutankhamun = Ankhesenamon   =  Kheperkheprure Ay = Tiy (Tey)
Kheperkheprure Ay = ?
Family Tree:
Relationships: Where = occurs between two names it indicates marriage.
Name of rulers printed in bold; names of women in italics.
All family members are not listed to make it easier to follow the linkage.
Seqenenra Tao I   = Tetisheri
17th Dynasty (1648-1539 BC)
18th Dynasty (1539-1295 BC)
= Meritre Hatshepsut
Smenkhkare = Meritaten
Horemheb = Mutnodjmet
(Last king and queen
of the 18th Dynasty)
Two children born stillborn
Queen Hatshepsut
Tuthmosis IV
Queen Nefertiti
Land of Punt
Tuthmosis III
Princess Sitamun
Click to enlarge photos (facts)
Steward Senmut
Nubian god Bes
Nubian Scribe
Maiherpri, a Nubian prince

A crew of artisans builds and decorates funerary equipment in the tomb of the 18th Dynasty vizier Rekhmire at Thebes.

(Kenneth Garrett, "Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs," Official Companion Book (c) 2005 National Geographic Society)

Viceroy Ruyu
Queen Kiya
Amenhotep I
Queen Tiye
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