Baldwin, John D. Prehistoric Nations; or Inquiries concerning some of the Great Peoples and Civilizations of Antiquity, and their probable relation to a still older civilization of the Ethiopians or Cushites of Arabia. Kessinger Publishing Company; February 1998); Reprint edition of 1869
Ben-Jochannan, Yosef. Black Man of the Nile and His Family; Black Classic Press; September 1990
Black Man of the Nile and His Family, first published in 1972, is Dr. Ben's best known work. It captures much of the substance of his early research on ancient Africa. In a masterful and unique manner, Dr. Ben uses Black Man of the Nile to challenge and expose "Europeanized" African History. He points up the distortion after distortion made in the long record of African contributions to world civilization. Once exposed he attacks these distortions with a vengence, providing a spellbinding corrective lesson in our story.
Ben-Jochannon, Yosef. "The Nile Valley Civilization and the Spread of African Culture". In New Dimensions in African History: From the Nile Valley to the New World; Science, Invention & Technology. ed. Clarke, John Henrik, and ben-Jochannon,Yosef. Africa World Press, Trenton, 1991
Bennett, Lerone, Jr., Before the Mayflower: A History of Black America, 5th ed. (New York: Penguin Books, 1982).
Charles Bonnet, The Nubian Pharaohs: Black Kings on the Nile, 2007:
In 2003, a Swiss archaeological team working in northern Sudan uncovered one of the most remarkable Egyptological finds in recent years. At the site known as Kerma, near the third cataract of the Nile, archaeologist Charles Bonnet and his team discovered a ditch within a temple from the ancient city of Pnoubs, which contained seven monumental black granite statues. Magnificently sculpted, and in an excellent state of preservation, they portrayed five pharaonic rulers, including Taharqa and Tanoutamon, the last two pharaohs of the 'Nubian' Dynasty, when Egypt was ruled by kings from the lands of modern-day Sudan. For over half a century, the Nubian pharaohs governed a combined kingdom of Egypt and Nubia, with an empire stretching from the Delta to the upper reaches of the Nile.
Budge, E. A. Wallis: A History of Ethiopia, Nubia and Abyssinia (According to the Hieroglyphic Inscriptions of Egypt and Nubia and the Ethiopian Chronicles). London, 1928: Methuen (two vols.). Republished in Oosterhout, the Netherlands, in 1966 in one volume by Anthropological Publications
Prof. Wallis Budge writes on the Egyptian race: The human remains that have been found in Neolithic graves in Egypt prove that the Egyptians of the Neolithic period in upper Egypt were Africans, and there is good reason for thinking that they were akin to all the other inhabitants of the Nile Valley at that time.
Celenko, Theodore. Egypt in Africa; Indiana University Press; 1996
Davidson, Basil. Africa in History (New York: Macmillam Publishing Company, 1974)
Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa, Little Brown & Co; Revised edition 1959.
Combining archeological evidence and scholarly research, Davidson traces the exciting development of the rich kingdoms of the lost cities of Africa, fifteen hundred years before European ships first came to African shores. Survey, based on archeological findings, of African life and civilization during the fifteen hundred years prior to colonization.
Del Grande, Nino. "PrehistoricIron Smelting in Africa;" in Natural History. September-October,1932
Diodous Siculus, Bibliotheke, 3. Translated by Tomas Hagg, in Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, vol. II: From the Mid-Fifth to the First Century B.C. (Bergen, Norway, 1996), pp. 644-647
"Now they relate that of all people the Ethiopians were the earliest, and say that the proofs of this are clear. That they did not arrive as immigrants but are the natives of the country and therefore rightly are called authochthonous is almost universally accepted. That those who live in the South are likely to be the first engendered by the earth is obvious to all. For as it was the heat of the sun that dried up the earth while it was still moist, at the time when everything came into being, and caused life, they say it is probable that it was the region closest to the sun that first bore animate beings.
"They further write that it was among them that people were first taught to honour the gods and offer sacrifices and arrange processions and festivals and perform other things by which people honour the divine. For this reason their piety is famous among all men, and the sacrifices among the Ethiopians are believed to be particularly pleasing to the divinity.
"[The Ethiopians] say that the Egyptians are settlers from among themselves and that Osiris was the leader of the settlement. The customs of the Egyptians, they say, are for the most part Ethiopian, the settlers having preserved their old traditions. For to consider the kings gods, to pay great attention to funeral rites, and many other things, are Ethiopian practices, and also the style of their statues and the form of their writing are Ethiopian. Also the way the priestly colleges are organized is said to be the same in both nations. For all who have to do with the cult of the gods, they maintain, are [ritually] pure: the priests are shaved in the same way, they have the same robes and the type of scepter shaped like a plough, which also the kings have, who use tall pointed felt hats ending in a knob, with the snakes that they call the asp (aspis) coiled round them."
Diop, Chiekh Anta. The African Origin of Civilization; Myth or Reality. Edited and translated by Mercer Cook; Lawrence Hill & Co., Chicago, 1974
Egyptology developed in concurrence with the development of the slave trade and the colonial system. It was during this period that Egypt was literally taken out of Africa, academically, and made an extension of Europe. In many ways Egypt is the key to ancient African history. African history is out of kilter until ancient Egypt is looked upon as a distinct African nation. The Nile River played a major role in the relationship to Egypt to the nations in Southeast Africa. During the early history of Africa, the Nile was a great cultural highway on which elements of civilization came into and out of inner Africa. In the chapter called, "Birth of the Negro Myth," Dr. Diop shows how African people, whose civilizations were old before Europe was born, were systematically read out of the respectful commentary of human history. This examination is continued in the chapter called, "Modern Falsification of History." Here, Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop deals with how Western historians, for the last five hundred years wrote or rewrote history glorifying the people of European extraction and distorted the history of the rest of the world. Those who read this book seriously are in for a shock and rewarding experience in learning. This is a major work by a major African historian. At last, the renaissance of African historiography from an African point of view has begun, and none too soon.
Diop, Chiekh Anta, Meema Yaa-Lengi Ngemi. Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology; Lawrence Hill & Co., April 1991
Excerpt (Chapter V:)
The Egyptians, while they painted themselves red-brown, represented the nations of Palestine as yellow-brown, and the Libyans yellow-white. The present inhabitants of Egypt range from a yellow color in the north parts to a deep bronze. Tylor is of opinion ("Anthropology," p. 95) that the ancient Egyptians belonged to a brown race, which embraced the Nubian tribes and, to some extent, the Berbers of Algiers and Tunis.
Dorsey, George A. The Story of Civilization: Man's Own Show, 1931 Publisher: Harper and Brothers
(now Harper Collins)
Drake, St Clair. Black Folk Here and There: An Essay in History and Anthropology (Afro-American Culture and Society); Univ of California Center. February 1991
To the Jews of pre-Christian Palestine, Black people were sometimes friends and sometimes enemies, but never objects of racially based derision or contempt. The ancient Greeks categorized people not as Black or white, but as "civilized" or "uncivilized." In the Muslim world, many slaves were Blacks, but so were many soldiers, several prominent rulers, and an occasional saint. Armed with such facts gathered during a lifetime of research, St. Clair Drake in his final work, Black Folk Here and There, submits to the test of history a wide range of theories that attempt to explain what happens when Black people and white people interact and why color prejudice may arise.
In Volume 1, Drake lays out the various concepts of race relations and examines them against the evidence of ancient Egypt, a civilization whose history has been drastically disfigured by modern racist assumptions.
In Volume 2, Drake challenges theories claiming that negative attitudes toward blackness and Black people, which emerged from centuries of racial slavery, have always prevailed. Drake finds telling evidence of color prejudice and equally telling evidence of its absence or irrelevance.
Du Bois, W.E.B., Black Folk: Then and Now, reprint (Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus-Thomson Organization Limited, 1990).
Dunn, Chris. The Giza Power Plant: Technologies of Ancient Egypt; Bear & Co; September 1998
Fich, Charles S. "Nile Genesis: Continuity of Culture From the Great Lakes to the Delta;" in Egypt: Child of Africa. ed. Van Sertima, Ivan. Transaction Publishers. 1994
Frobenius, Leo. The Voice of Africa; 2 Volumes in 1; Arno Pr; June 1980
Gadalla, Moustafa. Exiled Egyptians. The Heart of Africa; Tehuti Research Foundation, Greensboro, NC, 1999
Georg, Eugen. The Adventure of Mankind; Translated from the German by Robert Bek-Gran. New York: EP Dutton & Company, Inc., September 25, 1931.
" We have long had proof that a primitive Negroid race of Pygmies once lived around the Mediterranean. Blacks were the first to plow the mud of the Nile; they were the dark-skinned, curly-haired Kushites. Blacks were masters of Sumeria (They called themselves Black-Heads, K. H.) and Babylon before it became the country of four tongues. And in India, the kingdom of the Dravidian monarchs . . . . existed until the period of written history.
He also noted for further research:
Ancient African Black Kingdoms all over Africa still await excavation.
. . . . the reputedly wealthy city of copper, or the towns of the semi-nomadic Blemyer peoples beyond the Nile . . . the mighty palaces and fortresses of legend have never yet been found in the Arabian desert. Since the time Strabo there has been an occult tradition of strange insistence concerning the subterranean labyrinths in the Egyptian deserts. And somewhere in the South, perhaps along the Sofala, perhaps in the vicinage of the much discussed ruins of Mutindela, Umtali and Zimbabye, may again be found the Biblical gold fields of Ophir. It is mentioned not in the Bible alone, for it appears, together with the unknown gold fields of Mayu and Akita, in ancient Egypt grave inscriptions.
We know that, in any case, Africa has a rich past. The region between Lake Nyassa and Basutoland was the center of a civilization 7000 years ago. Rhodesia holds the ruins of powerful stone fortifications, the builders of which are the subject of conjecture. Frobenius excavated ruins in the Yoruba district of West Africa and found there, on the site of an ancient sacred grove, well-shaped, Negroid heads which had a somewhat ancient appearance, together with sculptures of stone, bronze and terra cotta and the ruins of a lost world.
. . . . great Negro empires rose and fell in Central Africa. The great Arabian historian Jaquibi mentions the lost Ethiopian kingdom of Habasa, and even the medieval maps showed Central Africa kingdoms: the empire al Gogo, the most powerful Negro state; the empires of al Marw, Maranda, al Hazbin, Canhaga, Tadharin, Zajanir, Azwar, Taquarat. By 100 B.C. the Gana Empire on the Niger claimed to have a dynasty of 118 royal generations. Near the end of the fifteenth century the Sonja dominated all of inner Africa to Lake Chad and even Timbuctoo. It was then the most important market place for caravans crossing the desert in the stream of organized traffic between the coast of the Mediterranean and the tropic South. Stories were current in sixteenth century Europe of the fairy-like edifice of gold, the royal palace of Benin Negroes on the coast of Africa.
Night fell upon the dark continent. The civilizations of Africa were forgotten. After the burning of the Benin capital, many fine ivory carvings, corals, plastic reliefs and above all tablets of bronze were found in huts, pits and sheds and under the rubbish and dirt of centuries. Their design and execution showed extraordinary ability and bore the impress of true art. They were the bronze plates that once sheathed the roof, the gate towers, the beams and pillars of the royal palace of Benin.
Hall, H. R. The Ancient History of the Near East; The Ancient History of the Near East. 6th ed. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1924.
Hapgood, Charles H. Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings: Evidence of Advanced Civilization in the Ice Age; Adventures Unlimited Press; January 1997
Heeren, A. H. L. Reflections on the politics, intercourse, and trade of the ancient nations of Africa; Oxford, D. A. Talboys, 1832.
"During the reign (of Anysis), the Ethiopians and their king Sabacos (i.e. Shabaqo) invaded Egypt with a great force. And the Ethiopian reigned over Egypt for fifty years, during which time he performed the following: When some Egyptian committed a crime, he did not want to have any of them killed, but judged each according to the gravity of his crime, ordering the offender to heap up dykes in front of his home city. And in this way the level of the cities rose even higher."
Herodotus 3. 20-21. Translated by Tomas Hagg, in Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, vol. I: From the Eighth to the Mid-Third Century B.C. (Bergen, Norway: 1994), pp. 326.
"The Ethiopians are said to be the tallest and most handsome of all men. They are also said to have customs which set them apart from other peoples, especially the following concerning the royalty: the man among the citizens whom they find to be the tallest and to have strength in proportion to his height they find fit to be king."
Higgins, Sir Godfrey. Anacalypsis, An Attempt To Draw Aside The Veil Of The Saitic Isis; Or, An Inquiry Into The Origin Of Languages, Nations, And Religions. 1836. Volume One. Kessinger Publishing Company. Replublished 1992
Houston, Drusilla Dunjee. Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire; Black Classic Press, Baltimore, 1985. First Published in 1926
Jackson, John G. Introduction to African Civilizations. Citadel Press, New York, 1970
James, George G.M., Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy Is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy (Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1992).
Lady Lugard: A Tropical Dependency (London, 1964)
"When the history of Negroland comes to be written in detail, it may be found that the kingdoms lying towards the eastern end of Sudan (classical home of Ancient Ethiopians, K. H.) were the home of races who inspired, rather than of races who received, the tradition of civilization associated for us with the name of ancient Egypt. For they cover on either side of the Upper Nile between the latitudes of ten degrees and seventeen degrees, territories in which are found monuments more ancient than the oldest Egyptian monuments. If this should prove to be the case and civilized world be forced to recognize in a black people the fount of its original enlightenment, it may happen that we shall have to revise entirely our view of the black races, and regard those who now exist as the decadent representatives of an almost forgotten era, rather than as the embryonic possibility of an era yet to come. "
"The fame of the ancient Ethiopians (ancient Kushites, K. H.) was widespread in ancient history. Herodotus described them as the tallest, most beautiful and long-lived of the human races, and before Herodotus, Homer, in even more flattering language, described them as the most just of men, the favorites of the gods. The annals of all the great early nations of Asia Minor full of them. The Mosaic records allude to them frequently; but while they are described as the most powerful, the most just, and the most beautiful of the human race, they are constantly spoken of as Black, and there seems to be no other conclusion to be drawn than that remote period of history, the leading race of the Western World was a Black race."
Legh, Thomas. Narrative of a Journey in Egypt and the Country beyond the Cataracts (Philadelphia, 1817).
"There has been considerable dispute about the colour of the ancient Egyptians, some authors asserting that they were Negroes, while others maintain that the present Copts are their descendants, and attempt to prove their supposition by the appearance of mummies, which exhibit complexions of dusky brown, lips occasionally thick, but the nose frequently aquiline. The opinion that the former inhabitants of the country were Negroes is founded chiefly on the expressions used by Herodotus, who calls them 'dark-coloured and woolly haired', and on the character of the head of the Sphinx, which has the Negro features, and may be justly supposed to offer a correct representation of the countenance of the Egyptians. On the other hand, with respect to the present Copts, it cannot be denied, that the dark hue of their hair and eyes, the former of which is frequently not more curled than is occasionally seen among Europeans, their dusky brown complexions and aquiline noses, all correspond pretty exactly with the paintings to be found in the tombs of Thebes. It is remarkable, however, that the inhabitants of the island of Elephantine (i.e. at the border of Nubia) are nearly black. But notwithstanding their colour, the females of Elephantine are conspicuous for their elegant shapes, and are, upon the whole, the finest women we saw in Upper Egypt."
Lugard, Lady, Flora Shaw Lugard, Asa G., III Hilliard. A Tropical Dependency: An Outline of the Ancient History of the Western Sudan With an Account of the Modern Settlement of Northern Nigeria; Black Classic Press; March 1996
Maspero, Gaston, The Dawn of Civilization; Ungar Pub Co; (June 1968)
By the almost unanimous testimony of ancient historian, they (the Egyptians) belong to an African race which first settled in the Ethiopia on the middle Nile, following the course of the river they gradually reached the sea.
Massey, Gerald. Ancient Egypt the Light of the World: A Work of Reclamation and Restitution. Black Classic Press; Reprint edition (March 1, 1995)
In the first volume of Ancient Egypt, Massey was primarily concerned with elaborating how the first humans emerging in Africa created thought. In the second volume, Massey examines the celestial phenomenon known as the Precession of the Equinoxes.
Massey, Gerald. Book of the Beginnings Vols. I & II; Kessinger Publishing Company; Reprint edition (January 1, 1992)
Monges, Miriams M'At-Ka-Re. Kush, the Jewel of Nubia: Reconnecting the Root System of African Civilization
Africa World Press; (August 1997)
"The Great Cheikh Anta Diop identified the roots of African culture from which one can trace the branches. No African researcher since, however, has provided a comprehensive analysis connecting the ancient Nile Valley civilizations with the African universe. From the pyramids of Egypt to the great walls of Zimbabwe, Western scholars have attributed the achievements of these prodigious indigenous African civilizations to people culturally and geographically alien to Africa. However, in the case of the ancient Nubian Empire of Kush, which occupied the southern part of Kemet (ancient Egypt) and all of present-day Sudan, one expects reasonable scholars to attribute this African culture to an African people. The present much-needed work traces Diop's great "African cultural commonalities" of matriarchy, totemism, divine kinship, and cosmology to the very core of Kushite culture. This book is on the cutting edge of a new generation of Afrocentric scholarship whose mandate it is to provide a clearer picture of Africa's true nature, it s genius and its genuine contribution to World Civilizations."
Morkot, Robert G. The Black Pharaohs: Egypt's Nubian Rulers; Rubicon Press; (April 1, 2000); 352 Illustrations: 116 b&w and line drawings
How did modern Sudan's ancient civilization conquer, rule then lose its dominion over Pharaonic Egypt? The Rubicon Press is pleased to announce the publication of a new book, The Black Pharaohs - Egypt's Nubian Rulers - a major historical and archaeological study on the rise and fall of ancient Egypt's one-time black rulers. The Black Pharaohs is a detailed and provocative reassessment of the Kushite kingdom, which, at its height, stretched from the Mediterranean far into modern Sudan, while influencing large parts of Black Africa and much of western Asia including Syria and The Lebanon.
Written by Dr Robert Morkot, a renowned scholar and Egyptologist specialising in the ancient Kushite civilisation, The Black Pharaohs describes the extraordinary scope and influence of the Kushites at a time of remarkable social, cultural and military upheaval in north and north east Africa and the Near East. For nearly one hundred years, between 750 and 650 BC, the Kushite kingdom was one of the greatest powers on earth. The Kushites were seen by the princes of western Asia, notably the kings of Israel and Judah, as their defenders against the might of the Assyrian empire. Inevitably, their championing of the Asiatic kingdoms brought the Kushites into conflict with the Assyrian empire. It was the strength of Assyria combined with the self-interest of the Libyan dynasts of the Egyptian Delta that eventually forced the Kushites out of Egypt, putting a stop to Nubia's Pharaonic ambitions.
In this major work of more than 350 pages and 116 illustrations, Robert Morkot examines Nubia's legacy in ancient Egypt, describing the impact of this often under-estimated people. Where did the powerful Kushite kingdom come from? How was it able to conquer Egypt and gain such influence in western Asia? What influence did the Kushites wield in Egypt and amongst Egypt's neighbours in Africa? Until recently, the Kushite kingdom was thought to have burst from an historical void. But, over the past decade, there has been a considerable reassessment of the origins of this powerful state. Indeed, the archaeology of this period of Nubian history has become the focus of heated academic debate. Much of this debate and subsequent controversy has focussed on the minutiae of archaeology. As a leading scholar in this field, Dr Morkot seeks to give a more expansive view of the era, incorporating a great deal of new evidence and interpretation. The Black Pharaohs takes a much broader approach, placing the Kushite kingdom in its greater historical context, and in a long tradition of formidable opposition to Egyptian southward expansion. As well as significant Egyptian and Nubian evidence, the mass of Assyrian texts, some of which have been published only recently, sheds further light on the cultures and conflicts of these ancient super-powers. Altogether, this book draws on fresh evidence and analysis, and presents a new, and perhaps controversial, reassessment of the Kushite kingdom.
Petrie, Sir W. M. Flinders. The Making of Egypt; London: Sheldon Press, 1939
Petrie, Sir W. M. Flinders. The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh; Kegan Paul International Limited, 2000
The Roman essayist Philostratus (about AD 220); From Philostratus, Vita Apollonii ("Life of Apollonius"), 6.2, translated by Tomas Hagg, Fontes Historiae Nubiorum III (Bergen, Norway: 1998), pp. 962-964.
"When (Apollonius) came to the border between Ethiopia and Egypt, a place they call Sycaminos [i.e. Maharraqa], he happened upon uncoined gold, linen, ivory, roots, perfume, and spices. All of this was lying unguarded at a fork in the road. I will explain what this means, for the custom is still observed to this day. The Ethiopians come with some of the goods that Ethiopia produces, and the Egyptians carry everything away and bring to the same place Egyptian goods of equal value, buying what they lack with what they have. Those who live at the border in the interior are not quite black, but all of the same colour, less black than the Ethiopians but blacker than the Egyptians.
"When Apollonius understood the nature of this trade, he said our excellent Greeks say they cannot live without one obol (a type of coin) begetting another and unless they can force up the price of their goods by retailing and hoarding. Well it was (here) where wealth was not honoured but equality flourished, because people lived in harmony and the whole earth was considered one."
Poe, Richard. Black Spark White Fire. Did African Explorers Civilize Ancient Europe?, Prima Publishing, 1999
In Black Spark, White Fire, Richard Poe seeks to transcend the passions and politics surrounding this subject. He examines the issues objectively and reaches conclusions that some may find startling.
Based upon seven years of research, including in-depth interviews with leading scholars and scientists, Black Spark, White Fire has been praised by experts as varied as Temple University professor Molefi Kete Asante, Cornell University historian Martin Bernal and Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl. With all the suspense of a mystery thriller, Black Spark follows a slender trail of clues that leads from the highlands of Ethiopia to the barrows of the Russian steppes. It pieces together the forgotten story of an Age of Exploration that ended nearly 3,000 years before Columbus -- a time when Egypt ruled the waves, Africa was the seat of learning and power, and Europe a savage frontier.
Pomponius Mela, De Chorographica ("Description of Places") 3.85-88, 96-101 (AD 40) derived from Herodotus (late fifth century BC), translated by Tomas Hagg, in Fontes Historiae Nubiorum III: From the First to the Sixth Century AD (Bergen, Norway: 1998), pp. 840-845.
"Inland live the Ethiopians. They inhabit the region of Mero, which the Nile makes into an island by encircling it with its first embrace. One part (of the people) is called Macrobii ("the Long-lived") because they live longer than us by about half a life's length, the other is called Automoles ("the Deserters") because they are immigrants from Egypt. They have good looks and are admirers of bodily strength, just like others are of moral qualities. They have the custom of choosing their leader according to his beauty and strength. Among them there is more gold than bronze; accordingly they consider the scarcer metal the more precious: they adorn themselves with bronze, and make fetters for the criminals from gold. There is a place always filled with ready made meals, and since everyone who wishes is permitted to eat as much as he pleases they call it "the Table of the Sun" and contend that what is set forth around this place is replaced forthwith by divine agency."
Rawlinson, George. The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World; Volume One
Rawlinson, Sir Henry. "Essay on the Early History of Babylonia," in The History of Herodotus; Book One, Appendix, Essay VI; translated by George Rawlinson, with essays and notes by Sir Henry Rawlinson and Sir J. G. Wilkinson.
Reynolds, David, ed. "Lucifer and Ethiopia: Whitman, Race, and Poetics before the Civil War and After," in A
Historical Approach to Walt Whitman; New York, Oxford University Press, 1999.
Seignobos, Charles. History of Ancient Civilization, edited by J. A. James (N. Y., 1906, Scribner)
Service, Pamela F. The Ancient African Kingdom of Kush; Benchmark Books, 1998 . Ages 10 to 14
This volume introduces the student to an ancient civilization known as the Kush. The Kush tribe lived in Africa, along the Nile in the northern part of what is now Sudan. The Kush people lived by hunting game and gathering wild plants. The Kush were a warring people, and several accounts are given as to countries with whom they fought and won, as well as those they fought and lost. This volume offers an extensive index as well as some excellent added pages throughout the book that discusses what daily life was like in a Kush village, or what it would be like to be a teenager in Kush. Although a difficult subject, this book presents the material in a way that would be understandable to most middle school students, and to some older elementary students.
Sewell, Brigadier-General J. W. S. The Legacy of Egypt. ed. by S. R. K. Glanville, Oxford, 1942
Silverberg, Robert. Empires In The Dust; Bantam Books, 1966
Smith, Phillip. The Ancient History of the East, pp. 25-26, London, 1881
"No people have bequeathed to us so many memorials of its form complexion and physiognomy as the Egyptians. If we were left to form an opinion on the subject by the description of the Egyptians left by the Greek writers we should conclude that they were, if not Negroes, at least closely akin to the Negro race. That they were much darker in coloring than the neighboring Asiatics; that they had their frizzled either by nature or art; that their lips were thick and projecting, and their limbs slender, rests upon the authority of eye-witnesses who had traveled in the country and who could have had no motive to deceive. The fullness of the lips seen in the Sphinx of the Pyramids and in the portraits of the kings is characteristic of the Negro."
Snowden Jr., Frank M. Before Color Prejudice. The Ancient View of Blacks; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1983
Snowden Jr., Frank M. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1970.
Here's a book to raise the spirits of anyone of African descent who feels that he or she has nothing to do with the making of Western civilization. Frank M. Snowden Jr., a world-renowned scholar on ancient Greece and Rome who taught at Howard and Georgetown Universities, details with encyclopedic and painstaking scholarship and research the undeniable presence of Africans in the Greco-Roman world. "The experiences of those Africans who reached the alien shores of Greece and Italy constituted an important chapter in the history of classical antiquity," he writes. Using evidence from terra cotta figures, paintings, and classical sources like Herodotus and Pliny the Elder, Snowden proves, contrary to our modern assumptions, that Greco-Romans did not view Africans with racial contempt. Many Africans worked in the Roman Empire as musicians, artisans, scholars, and generals as well as slaves, and they were noted as much for their virtue as for their appearance of having a "burnt face" (from which came the Greek name Ethiopian).
Syncellus or George the Monk. Corpus Scriptorum Historicum Byzantinorum, W Dindorf, 1829
Taylor, John H. Egypt and Nubia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991).
Thomas, Bertram. The Arabs: The Life-Story of a People Who Have Left Their Deep Impress on the World; Simon Publications; (November 2001)
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Black Women in Antiquity (Journal of African Civilizations); Transaction Publishers; 2nd edition (April 1988)
This book provides an overview of the black queens, madonnas and goddesses who dominated the history and imagination of ancient times. The authors have concentrated on Ethopia and Egypt because the documents in the Nile Valley are voluminous compared to the sketchier record in other parts of Africa, but also because the imagination of the world, not just that of Africa, was haunted by these women. They are just as prominent a feature of European mythology as of African reality. The book is divided into three parts; Ethopian and Egyptian queens and Goddesses; Black Women in Ancient Art; Conquerors and Courtesans. There are also chapters on the diffusion into Europe of the African goddess, Isis, and on the great scientist Hypatia, whose African ancestry during the Greek-invader period is deduced not only by her lineage but by a comparative study of the rights of African and European women. (88 illustrations)
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Egypt: Child of Africa (Journal of African Civilizations); Transaction Pub; Reprint edition (December 1995)
This book seeks to answer two questions: First, whether ancient Egyptians were predominantly African or Africoid in a physical sense during the major native dynasties before the invasions of the Persian, Greek , Roman and Arab foreigners. Second, whether their language, writing, vision of god and the universe, their concept of the divine kingship, ritual ceremonies and practices, administrative and architecural symbols, structures, and techno-complex, were quintessentially African and not, in any major particular, projected from those in Europe or Asia in that or any previous time. (105 illustrations)
Van Sertima, Ivan. ed. Egypt Revisited. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick (USA) & London (U.K.), 1999
This work is divided, with students and teachers in mind, into four sections. In the first section, two distinguished historians, Basil Davidson and Cheikh Anta Diop, present the evidence which establishes the African claim to a physical and cultural predominance in the classical Egyptian dynasties. The second section is a review of the major Black dynasties (Bruce Williams, Wayne Chandler, Runoko Rashidi, James Brunson, Legrand Clegg, Asa Hilliard, Phaon Goldman) and includes a working chronology of the dynasties. In the third section, Theophile Obenga initiates a rewriting of the beginnings of philosophy and Maulana Karenga provides a fresh study of the world's oldest treatises on social order. Charles Finch informs us of startling medical breakthroughs in his commentary on the Edwin Smith papyrus. The book closes with a bibliography of Black Women Scholars in Egyptology (Larry Williams), a guide to readings on Egypt for children (Beatrice Lumpkin) and a glossary of Egyptian terms (Rashidi and Blackburn).
Volney, C.F., The Ruins, or, Meditation on the Revolutions of Empires: And the Law of Nature, New York, Twentieth Century Publication Co., 1890
Around the 1920s, just before Egyptology, the French scholar Count Constanin de Volney, a universal and objective spirit, if ever there were one, tried to refresh the memory of humaity, who, because of the enslavement of Blacks, had forgotten the past of this people.
"It was, then, on the borders of the upper Nile, among a black race of men, that was organized the complicated system of the worship of the stars, considered in relation to the productions of the earth and the labors of agriculture; and this first worship, characterized by their adoration under their own forms and natural attributes, was a simple proceeding of the human mind."
Volney, M. C., Travels through Syria and Egypt in the Years 1783, 1784, and 1785 (London: 1787), p. 80-83.
"When I visited the Sphinx, I could not help thinking that the figure of that monster furnished the true solution to the enigma (of how the modern Egyptians came to have their "mulatto' appearance) (It's features) were those of the negro. (the Egyptians therefore must have been) real negroes, of the same species of the natives of Africa. How are we astonished when we reflect that to the race of negroes, at present our slaves, and the objects of our extreme contempt, we owe our arts, sciences, and even the very use of speech; and when we recollect that in the midst of those nations who call themselves the friends of liberty and humanity, the most barbarous of slaveries is justified, and that it is even a problem whether the understanding of negroes be of the same species with that of white men!"
Wilkinson, Toby, Genesis of the Pharaohs: Dramatic New Discoveries that Rewrite the Origins of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (June 2003)
Modern scholars have tended to accept that the brilliant civilization of the pharaohs is the product of the rich agricultural surpluses of the Nile floodplain. But ancient rock carvings tell a different story, according to this illustrated treatise on ancient Egypt. Archaeologist Wilkinson specializes in rock art in the region between the Nile and the Red Sea dating from the 5th millennium B. C., when this now-desert area was verdant grassland. These pre-Pharaonic carvings, he argues, are a complex mixture of motifs, depicting crocodiles, hippos and boats from the Nile alongside ostriches and giraffes from the savannah, and suffused with cattle imagery and the religious symbolism that would characterize classical Egyptian art. This evidence, he asserts, shows that pre-Pharaonic Egyptians were not settled flood-plain farmers, but semi-nomadic herders who drove their cattle in between the lush riverbanks and the drier grasslands-a legacy evident, for example, in the Egyptian royal sceptre, which looks like a shepherd's crook. Wilkinson argues for Egyptian civilization's deep roots in a distinctive African landscape. His theory tacitly challenges an orthodoxy that holds that civilization sprang from efforts to irrigate land around the great rivers of Egypt, Mesopotamia and China; "cultural complexity," he writes, "was not borne of an easy agricultural lifestyle by the banks of the river, but of the fight for survival in more difficult terrain." Wilkinson wears his erudition lightly and provides an engaging and clearly written guide to the arcana of pre-historic Egyptology. His book is an invigorating contribution to a vital historiographical debate. 87 illustrations, 25 in color.
Williams, Bruce "The Lost Pharaohs of Nubia," Van Sertima, Ivan, ed., Egypt Revisited (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1991)
Williams, Chancellor. Destruction of Black Civilization : Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C to 2000 A.D.; Third World Press; New edition (February 1992)
This Classic bestseller documents the achievements of the Black race prior to the many invasions of Africa. The author examines the rise and fall of Egyptian and Sudanese civilizations.
FOR YOUNGER READERS:
Baker, Rosalie and Baker, Charles (editors). "Ancient Nubia" in Calliope, November/December 1996.
Excellent issue that addresses history and culture, mainly of the Meroitic Period.
Bartok, Mira and Ronan, Christine. Ancient Egypt and Nubia: in series Ancient and Living Cultures Stencils, Good Year Books (Scott Foresman), 1995.
Basic information about Nubia with stencils of hieroglyphs and Nubian motifs.
Bianchi, Robert.The Nubians: People of the Ancient Nile, Millbrook Press, 1994.
Haynes, Joyce. Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of Africa, The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1992.