Charles Bonnet. The Nubian Pharaohs, Black Kings of the Nile, October 2006, page 210:


Paleolithic (1,000,000-9000 BCE): Kabrinarti lower paleolithic

Mesolithic (9000-6000 BCE): al-Barga mesolithic

Neolithic (6000-3500 BCE): al-Barga Mesolithic/Eastern necropolis neolithic

Predynastic (3500-2950 BCE): Old and middle pre-Kerma

Thinite Period (2950-2780 BCE): Recent pre-Kerma

Old Kingdom (2635-2140 BCE): Old Kerma (2450-2050 BCE), 2400 founding of Nubian town of Kerma with religious precinct

First Intermediate Period (2140-2020 BCE): Old Kerma

Middle Kingdom (2022-1750 BCE): Middle Kerma (2050-1750 BCE), Royal palaces; audience chamber; founding of a second city; Large princely tumuli

Second Intermediate Period (1750-1550 BCE): Classic Kerma (1750-1450 BCE), Construction of Deffufa; Great royal tumuli and funerary temples; Kerma monarchs occupy forts on second cataract

New Kingdom (1550-1080 BCE): 1500 BCE: end of Kerma kingdom and foundation of Egyptian city of Pnubs on site of Doukki Gel, 1 km north of Nubian town (Thutmosid, Amarnian, and Ramessid temples

Third Intermediate Period (1080-715 BCE): Several independent but Egyptianize Kushite kingdoms; scant Egyptian documentation; contacts maintained between Egypt and Nubia

Late Period (715-330 BCE): Shabaqo's temple; Taharqa's stature; Tanutamun's statues; Statues of Senkamanisken, Analmani, Aspelta; 593 BCE: Psamtik II's campaign in Egypt; Destruction of statues at Kerma and Gebel Barkal; Napatan temples at Doukki Gel; town extends toward river

Greek Period (330-30 BCE): Kerma scant information

Roman Period (30 BCE onward): Meroitic temples at Doukki Gel

Chronology of Kerma